From sound to power to luminosity, analog signals can be found everywhere in the natural world. However,
in order for these signals to be stored, loaded and analyzed by computers, we require a means to
discretize them into binary values that represent their magnitudes.
Our analog-to-digital converter uses an analog-to-time converter to do exactly this. From a technical standpoint, the process can be generalized as follows: a series of "gate pulses" are generated with a frequency that is proportional to the magnitude of the system input voltage, and the rising edge of one of these gate pulses triggers a constant-frequency clock pulse, hooked up to a counter, to quantify the number of clock pulses that fit under a gate pulse. This number can be converted to represent the magnitude of the input signal, and the result from that becomes the output of the system, updating with each new gate pulse.